Endoscopies (laparoscopy –hysteroscopy) have become major tools in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Endoscopic surgery (laparoscopy –hysteroscopy) has broadened its scope and developed to a treatment of choice in infertility cases.
Hysteroscopy enables us to have a look at the uterine cavity i.e. the space to accommodate the embryo and support its development.
Laparoscopy checks internal female genitalia (i.e. uterine, fallopian tubes, and ovaries). There are abnormal female genitalia conditions unlikely to be diagnosed with any other method other than hysteroscopy (such as endometritis) or laparoscopy (such as peritoneal endometriosis, adhesions etc.). In a significant rate of infertile women, these abnormal conditions may remain undiagnosed for a large period in time.
Laparoscopic Surgery may be the most significant development in General Surgery in the 20th century. Whereas open surgery is performed through large abdominal incisions to directly view the patient’s organs, in laparoscopy the surgeon performs the surgery through small incisions and views the patient’s internal organs magnified on a screen.
The surgeon and their associates performing the procedure while viewing the image displayed onscreen through a video camera connected to the laparoscope. Laser beams, electrosurgical units, a variety of special tools, and endoscopies are the technologically advanced equipment required. Surgeons, other than expert scientific knowledge and experience should necessarily have highly skilled knowledge of the special equipment.