Elias Gatos, M.D.
Surgeon Gynecologist – Obstetrician
Scientific Director emBIO Assisted Reproduction Unit

Key evidence

When should a couple seek help from an expert?

An infertility issue is likely to be present in couples having normal, unprotected sex for a year and still not having a child. In this case, a visit to the expert, as well as certain tests are required to diagnose, if any, the reason for infertility. Moreover, there are special conditions to be considered such as whether the female has noticed any menstrual abnormalities, or undergone reproductive system surgeries (uterus, fallopian tubes), whether she has intense pain during menstruation (possible endometriosis), whether two or three previous miscarriages have been recorded, whether the couple has a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or faces sex-related issues such as premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction, or whether the woman is over the age of 35.


Female factor evidence.
•     Fallopian tubes (patency and functionality issues)
•    Ovaries (serious anovulation issues)
•    Endometriosis.

Male factor evidence.
•    Serious sperm issues
•    Azoospermia (testicular biopsy material)
•    Erectile dysfunctions

Couple evidence
•    Age.
•    Failure of ordinary assisted reproduction methods to treat a single partner’s issues.
•    Infertility for unknown reasons not treated using ordinary methods.
•    Hereditary conditions for which preimplantation diagnosis is required.
•    Gamete donations (ova, sperm)


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